top of page

Foot and Nail Articles

These articles are open access. For affordable access to CINHAL, join ANA

Anatomy and Physiology

Baran, R., Dawber, R. P. R. , Haneke, E., Tosti, A., Bristow, I. (2003). A text atlas of nail disorders: Techniques in investigation and diagnosis (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Dunitz & Taylor Francis Group. Retrieved from​

Farris, D. J., Kelly, L. A., Cresswell, A. G., & Lichtwark, G. A. (2019). The functional importance of human foot muscles for bipedal locomotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(5), 1645–1650. Retrieved from

O'Rahilly, R. (2008). Basic Human Anatomy - O'Rahilly, Müller, Carpenter & Swenson. Retrieved from

Raj, M. A., DeCastro A., & Kiel J. (2019.). Pes Planus. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from

Assessment and Documentation

Boulton, A. J., Armstrong, D. G., Albert, S. F., Frykberg, R. G., Hellman, R., Kirkman, M. S., Lavery, L. A., Lemaster, J. W., Mills, J. L., Sr, Mueller, M. J., Sheehan, P., Wukich, D. K., American Diabetes Association, & American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (2008). Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment: a report of the task force of the foot care interest group of the American Diabetes Association, with endorsement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Diabetes care, 31(8), 1679–1685.

Client Education

Kaya, Z., & Karaca, A. (2018). Evaluation of Nurses' Knowledge Levels of Diabetic Foot Care Management. Nursing Research and Practice, 2018, 8549567. doi:10.1155/2018/8549567. Retrieved from

Miikkola, M., Lantta, T., Suhonen, R., & Stolt, M. (2019). Challenges of foot self-care in older people: A qualitative focus-group study. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 12, 5. doi:10.1186/s13047-019-0315-4. Retrieved from

Nather, A., Cao, S., Chen, J., & Low, A. Y. (2018). Prevention of diabetic foot complications. Singapore Medical Journal, 59(6), 291–294. doi:10.11622/smedj.2018069. Retrieved from

Omote, S., Watanabe, A., Hiramatsu, T., Saito, E., Yokogawa, M., Okamoto, R., … Tsukasaki, K. (2017). A foot-care program to facilitate self-care by the elderly: a non-randomized intervention study. BMC research notes, 10(1), 586. doi:10.1186/s13104-017-2898-9. Retrieved from

van Netten, J. J., Lazzarini, P. A., Armstrong, D. G., Bus, S. A., Fitridge, R., Harding, K., … Wraight, P. R. (2018). Diabetic Foot Australia guideline on footwear for people with diabetes. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 11, 2. doi:10.1186/s13047-017-0244-z. Retrieved from

Balance and Falls

Awale, A., Hagedorn, T. J., Dufour, A. B., Menz, H. B., Casey, V. A., & Hannan, M. T. (2017). Foot Function, Foot Pain, and Falls in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study. Gerontology, 63(4), 318–324. doi:10.1159/000475710. Retrieved from

Bruijn, S. M., & van Dieën, J. H. (2018). Control of human gait stability through foot placement. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 15(143), 20170816. doi:10.1098/rsif.2017.0816. Retrieved from

Curved Nails (Parrot Beak and Pincer)

Chen, S. X., & Cohen, P. R. (2018). Parrot Beak Nails Revisited: Case Series and Comprehensive Review. Dermatology and Therapy, 8(1), 147–155. doi:10.1007/s13555-017-0217-y. Retrieved from

Sano, H., & Ogawa, R. (2014). Clinical Evidence for the Relationship between Nail Configuration and Mechanical Forces. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open, 2(3), e115. Retrieved from


Sano, H., & Ogawa, R. (2015). A novel nonsurgical treatment for pincer nail that involves mechanical force control. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open, 3(2), e311. doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000220. Retrieved from

Sano, H., Shionoya, K., & Ogawa, R. (2015). Foot loading is different in people with and without pincer nails: A case control study. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 8, 43. doi:10.1186/s13047-015-0100-y. Retrieved from


Gooding, T. M., Feger, M. A., Hart, J. M., & Hertel, J. (2016). Intrinsic Foot Muscle Activation During Specific Exercises: A T2 Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of athletic training, 51(8), 644–650. Retrieved from

Lee, E., Cho, J., & Lee, S. (2019). Short-Foot Exercise Promotes Quantitative Somatosensory Function in Ankle Instability: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 25, 618–626. Retrieved from

Neuropathy Testing

Abraham, A., Alabdali, M., Alsulaiman, A., Albulaihe, H., Breiner, A., Katzberg, H. D., Aljaafari, D., Lovblom, L. E., & Bril, V. (2017). The sensitivity and specificity of the neurological examination in polyneuropathy patients with clinical and electrophysiological correlations. PloS one, 12(3), e0171597.

Boulton, A. J., Vinik, A. I., Arezzo, J. C., Bril, V., Feldman, E. L., Freeman, R., Malik, R. A., Maser, R. E., Sosenko, J. M., & Ziegler, D. (2005). Diabetic neuropathies: a statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 28(4):956–962.

Dros, J., Wewerinke, A., Bindels, P. J., & van Weert, H. C. (2009). Accuracy of monofilament testing to diagnose peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review. Annals of family medicine, 7(6), 555–558.

Lanting, S. M., Spink, M. J., Tehan, P. E., Vickers, S., Casey, S. L., & Chuter, V. H. (2020). Non-invasive assessment of vibration perception and protective sensation in people with diabetes mellitus: inter- and intra-rater reliability. Journal of foot and ankle research, 13, 3.

Meijer, J. W., Smit, A. J., Lefrandt, J. D., van der Hoeven, J. H., Hoogenberg, K., & Links, T. P. (2005). Back to basics in diagnosing diabetic polyneuropathy with the tuning fork! Diabetes Care, 28(9), 2201-2205.

Poncelet, A. N. (1998). An Algorithm for the Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy. American Family Physician, 57(4), 755-764.

Pop-Busui, R., Boulton, A. J. M., Feldman, E. L., Bril, V., Freeman, R., Malik, R. A., Sosenko, J. M., & Ziegler, D. (2017). Diabetic Neuropathy: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care40(1), 136-154.

Raymond, B., Steriovski, J., Gillyard, K., Yang, C., Wu, S. C., & Crews, R. T. (2020). Choosing a Vibratory Test to Pair With Semmes Weinstein Monofilament Testing for Evaluating Lower Extremity Sensation in Patients With Diabetes: A Comparison of Three Vibratory Methodologies. Journal of diabetes science and technology, 14(1), 8–15.


Ko, D., & Lipner, S. R. (2018). Onychogryphosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Skin Appendage Disorders, 4(4), 326–330. doi:10.1159/000485854. Retrieved from

Mc Dermott, R., &, Kidney, R. (2012). Celtic Tiger: A case of onychogryphosis. International Journal of Case Reports and Images, 3(1), 27­29. doi:10.5348/ijcri­2012­01­86­CI­8. Retrieved from


Ameen, M., Lear, J.T., Madan, V., Mohd Mustapa,  M.F., & Richardson,  M. (2014). British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the management of onychomycosis. British Journal of Dermatology, 171(5), 937-948.

Kreijkamp‐Kaspers, S., Hawke, K., Guo, L., Kerin, G., Bell‐Syer, S. E. M., Magin, P., Bell‐Syer, S. V., van Driel,  M. L. (2017). Oral antifungal medication for toenail onychomycosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD010031.

McAuley, W. J., Jones, S. A., Traynor, M. J., Guesné, S., Murdan, S., & Brown, M. B. (2016). An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient's nail plates. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 102, 178–184. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.03.008.

Piraccini, B. M., & Alessandrini, A. (2015). Onychomycosis: A Review. Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 1(1), 30–43. doi:10.3390/jof1010030.

Singal, A. & Khanna, D. (2011). Onychomycosis: Diagnosis and management. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, 77(6), 659-672.

Skin Care

Ali, S. M., & Yosipov, G. (2013). Skin pH: From Basic Science to Basic Skin Care. Acta Derm Venereol, 93, 261–267.
Retrieved from

Ali, S. M., & Yosipov, G. (2013). Skin pH: From Basic Science to Basic Skin Care. Supplementary Material. Acta Derm Venereol, 93, 261–267. Retrieved from

Tarun, J., Susan, J., Suria, J., Susan, V. J., & Criton, S. (2014). Evaluation of pH of Bathing Soaps and Shampoos for Skin and Hair Care. Indian journal of dermatology, 59(5), 442–444. Retrieved from

Systemic Conditions

Singal, A., & Arora, R. (2015). Nail as a window of systemic diseases. Indian Dermatology Online Journal, 6(2), 67–74. doi:10.4103/2229-5178.153002. Retrieved from

bottom of page